Department of Ecology
|Annual FTEs||General Fund State||Other Funds||Total Funds|
|(Dollars in Thousands)|
|2019-21 Maintenance Level||1,676.0||49,751||483,894||533,645|
|Difference from 2017-19||46.4||7,511||20,895||28,406|
|% Change from 2017-19||2.8%||17.8%||4.5%||5.6%|
2019-21 Policy Other Changes
|Hanford Air Permit and Compliance||0.60||0||168||168|
|Emergency Flood Assistance||0.0||0||250||250|
|Efficient Biosolids Permitting||1.2||0||334||334|
|GHG Reporting Workload Changes||0.60||0||184||184|
|Integrated Revenue System||1.8||165||1,290||1,455|
|Meeting Air Operating Permit Needs||2.1||0||624||624|
|Office of Chehalis Basin||5.1||1,464||0||1,464|
|Content Management System||4.6||562||4,398||4,960|
|Washington Conservation Corps||0.0||0||1,259||1,259|
|Enhanced Product Testing||7.6||0||2,882||2,882|
|Relocate NW Regional Office||0.0||558||4,090||4,648|
|Expanded Cleanup Site Capacity||6.9||0||2,094||2,094|
|Local Source Control Program||0.0||0||3,000||3,000|
|Puget Sound Observation Network||1.8||682||0||682|
|Woodstove Standards and Fees||0.80||0||192||192|
|Chemical Action Plan Implementation||11.4||0||4,482||4,482|
|Puget Sound Nonpoint Specialists||3.5||707||0||707|
|Water Right Adjudication Options||1.2||0||592||592|
|Support Voluntary Cleanups||6.9||0||2,074||2,074|
|Litter Control and Waste Reduction||3.5||0||4,056||4,056|
|Shift MTCA-Funded Work Back to GF-S||0.0||20,000||(20,000)||0|
|Recycling Crisis Response||4.6||0||1,944||1,944|
|HFC Emissions Reduction||0.0||0||959||959|
|Orca - Tug Escort Rule||0.0||0||689||689|
|Orca - Recovery Coordinator||0.60||260||0||260|
|Orca - Water Quality Enforcement||3.5||856||0||856|
|Orca - PS Instream Flow Enforcement||7.3||1,944||0||1,944|
|Orca - Shoreline Armor Assistance||2.3||638||0||638|
|Orca - Toxics and Juvenile Chinook||1.2||0||491||491|
|Low Carbon Fuels||4.3||1,424||0||1,424|
|Orca - Pharmaceuticals & Wastewater||0.50||236||0||236|
|Zero-Emission Vehicle Legislation||1.2||254||0||254|
|Orca - Dissolved Gas Rulemaking||2.0||580||0||580|
|Balance to Available Revenue||0.0||0||(532)||(532)|
|2019-21 Policy Other Changes Total||87.1||30,330||15,520||45,850|
2019-21 Policy Comp Changes
|State Public Employee Benefits Rate||0.0||4||45||49|
|WFSE General Government||0.0||1,456||12,851||14,307|
|State Rep Employee Benefits Rate||0.0||21||183||204|
|Non-Rep General Wage Increase||0.0||270||2,766||3,036|
|Non-Rep Premium Pay||0.0||18||280||298|
|Non-Rep Targeted Pay Increases||0.0||0||46||46|
|PERS & TRS Plan 1 Benefit Increase||0.0||34||304||338|
|Non-Rep Salary Schedule Revision||0.0||0||221||221|
|2019-21 Policy Comp Changes Total||0.0||1,803||16,696||18,499|
2019-21 Policy Transfers Changes
|Orca Transit Pass Funding Transfer||0.0||(24)||(180)||(204)|
|Health Coalition FSA Fund Transfer||0.0||(28)||(75)||(103)|
|2019-21 Policy Transfers Changes Total||0.0||(52)||(255)||(307)|
2019-21 Policy Central Services Changes
|Electric Vehicle Infrastructure||0.0||9||69||78|
|CTS Central Services||0.0||(73)||(525)||(598)|
|DES Central Services||0.0||11||68||79|
|OFM Central Services||0.0||164||1,200||1,364|
|2019-21 Policy Central Services Changes Total||0.0||417||1,647||2,064|
|Total Policy Changes||87.1||32,498||33,608||66,106|
|2019-21 Policy Level||1,763.1||82,249||517,502||599,751|
|Difference from 2017-19||133.5||40,009||54,503||94,512|
|% Change from 2017-19||8.2%||94.7%||11.8%||18.7%|
Hanford Air Permit and Compliance
Ongoing funding and FTE staff are provided to develop and manage permits for new air emissions sources that support the U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE) construction and operation of the tank waste treatment complex at the Hanford site, as well as implementing new controls over tank vapor emissions. Controlling air emissions from these sources will ensure that radioactive waste is appropriately managed, while protecting the environment and public health.
Emergency Flood Assistance
Ongoing funding is provided for rapid deployment of Washington Conservation Corps crews to carry out emergency activities to protect infrastructure and the environment from flooding, the most frequent major natural hazard in Washington. This funding will address a lack of resources necessary for local and tribal governments to respond to disasters, including taking immediate action, repairing a levee, preventing or mitigating an impending flood hazard or filling and stacking sandbags. It also will provide for grants to local governments for emergency response needs, including the removal of structures and repair of small-scale levees and tidegates.
Efficient Biosolids Permitting
The Biosolids Program regulates 374 sewage treatment plants, septage management facilities, and beneficial use facilities that generate, treat, and use biosolids, a product of wastewater treatment and septic tanks. The Governor's Office for Regulatory Innovation and Assistance issued the September 2018 "Permit Timeliness Progress Report" identifying the biosolids management permit as one of 12 permits most in need of improvement. To improve timeliness, the agency will issue new general permits for 227 facilities engaged in less-complex biosolids-management functions. One-time funding and FTE staff are provided for development of three new general permits and clearing the backlog of tracking data entry into the program's GIS system.
GHG Reporting Workload Changes
The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reporting Program tracks progress in meeting the state's statutory goals for greenhouse gas reduction. A recent review of GHG reporting data found substantial errors in over half the reports submitted between 2012 and 2016. Ongoing funding and FTE staff are provided to increase data verification, quality assurance, emissions tracking, data analysis, and compliance activities. This investment will result in more valid and timely data to inform the public and policy makers in developing climate change strategies to help the state achieve its GHG reduction goals.
Integrated Revenue System
A combination of one-time and ongoing funding and FTE staff are provided to replace outdated mainframe revenue systems to meet business needs, reduce the risk of audit findings, increase the quality and security of data, and gain efficiencies through standardizing processes. These systems are used to manage federal grant receivables and recover costs associated with toxic cleanup activities. Their age puts the agency at risk of losing the ability to support, maintain and enhance them.
Meeting Air Operating Permit Needs
The Air Operating Permit (AOP) program sets air pollution limits for large industrial facilities. Regulated entities are required by law to pay the full costs of the program. Each biennium, the Department of Ecology prepares a workload model to determine the budget and fees necessary to operate the program. Ongoing funding and staff are provided to match the projected workload.
Office of Chehalis Basin
Chapter 194, Laws of 2016 established the Office of Chehalis Basin within the agency to pursue and oversee the implementation of an integrated strategy to reduce long-term damage from floods and restore aquatic species habitat in the basin. Ongoing funding and staff are provided for administrative support of the Chehalis Basin Board, as well as development and implementation of the Chehalis Basin Strategy.
Content Management System
State agencies are required by state law to properly preserve public records and provide access to those records by responding to public records requests. The agency has over 50 terabytes of electronic records on its shared network drives, and staff responded to over 4,000 public records requests in 2017. Ongoing funding and FTE staff are provided to consolidate agency records into a single, searchable repository through an enterprise content management system. Modernizing and streamlining records management through a technology solution will improve customer service, lower financial risks and increase efficiency.
Washington Conservation Corps
The Washington Conservation Corps (WCC) collaborates with organizations to complete environmental restoration and enhancement projects statewide. Ongoing funding is provided to cover increased costs for WCC member living allowances, vehicles used to transport crews to worksites and costs unsupported by static federal AmeriCorps grant reimbursement. This funding will allow Ecology to field 380 WCC members while holding project sponsor costs at 75 percent of crew costs.
Enhanced Product Testing
To address the biggest source of toxic pollution in Washington, toxic chemicals in ordinary consumer products, a combination of one-time and ongoing funding and FTE staff are provided to double the number of product testing studies conducted by the agency each year. There is a growing demand for this tool, which the agency uses to enforce toxics in products laws, identify emerging chemicals of concern, and help manufacturers find safer alternatives. This investment will provide a better understanding of compliance rates for current product safety laws, reduce human and environmental exposure to chemicals of concern, and reduce contamination and toxics loading to land and water.
Relocate NW Regional Office
The agency's lease for the Northwest Regional Office (NWRO) in Bellevue expires June 30, 2021. The Office of Financial Management Six-Year Facilities Plan envisions colocation of NWRO within the Department of Transportation's Shoreline office facility in fiscal year 2022. Both agencies are finalizing the business operational requirements and space required to validate the colocation early in Fiscal Year 2019. A combination of one-time and ongoing funding is provided for the agency's projected costs to complete the facility setup, move the office by the end of June 2021, and pay increased lease costs beginning in the 2021-23 biennium.
Expanded Cleanup Site Capacity
The Toxics Cleanup Program cleans up contaminated sites to protect human health and the environment, and returns properties to productive use. Currently, 5,900 contaminated sites await final cleanup, and 200 to 300 new sites are discovered and reported each year. The program is experiencing workload increases from large, complex Puget Sound cleanup sites that are ready to proceed, recent decisions that returned initial site investigation responsibility to Ecology, initiation of an affordable housing-related cleanup grant program, and the emergence of new contaminants at cleanup sites (such as polyfluorinated alkyl substances, or PFAS). Ongoing funding and FTE staff are provided for six additional cleanup project managers in western Washington.
Local Source Control Program
The Local Source Control Program allows local governments to offer hands-on technical and regulatory assistance to small businesses that otherwise would not be visited by department inspectors focused on larger businesses. These small businesses typically have limited experience with hazardous waste regulations or stormwater management best practices. Because they are so numerous, they can collectively pose as much risk to the environment as larger, more heavily regulated businesses. Ongoing funding is provided for additional local partners to help address stormwater permit requirements and provide assistance to small businesses, as well as local source control monitoring to address toxic hotspots that impact Puget Sound. A portion of this funding will focus on removing sources of toxics in Puget Sound that impact Southern Resident orcas, such as PCBs, PAHs and PBDEs, guided as appropriate by agency chemical action plan recommendations.
Puget Sound Observation Network
Ocean acidification and overabundance of nutrients pose serious threats to the Salish Sea. The agency lacks dedicated, ongoing resources to assess and track impacts from changes in nutrient loading and associated ocean acidification conditions in Puget Sound that affect the food web and commercial shellfish industry. Ongoing funding and FTE staff are provided to monitor nutrient cycling and ocean acidification parameters at 20 marine stations in Puget Sound and Hood Canal. Resulting data will enhance understanding of the areas in Puget Sound most susceptible to ocean acidification and help inform decisions regarding future nutrient reduction measures.
Woodstove Standards and Fees
Fine particle pollution from woodstoves poses a significant health threat for millions of Washington residents, especially those with existing heart or lung disease, the elderly, and small children. Contingent on passage of agency request legislation to enact stricter woodstove emission standards and increase the retail fee supporting woodstove education programs, one-time funding and staff are provided to align existing rules with the bill requirements.
Chemical Action Plan Implementation
The Department of Ecology addresses impacts from Washington's most problematic chemicals through chemical action plans (CAPs) that identify uses, releases, and sources of exposure to persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemicals, and recommend steps to reduce and eliminate future releases. Ecology and the Department of Health recently released interim recommendations addressing PFAS (per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances) contamination in drinking water and sources of that contamination. A combination of one-time and ongoing funding and FTE staff are provided to implement these recommendations, accelerate the development of future CAPs, and monitor the results from CAP implementation.
Puget Sound Nonpoint Specialists
Nonpoint sources of water pollution, such as runoff from streets, farms and forestlands, pollute Washington's waters, and now represent one of the largest remaining challenges to achieving clean water in our state. Ongoing funding and staff are provided to support three new Puget Sound nonpoint water quality specialists to work with landowners and local governments to promote voluntary compliance, implement best management practices, and support the completion of water quality cleanup plans. Initial efforts will include reducing stream temperature and other sources of nonpoint pollution in the Skagit Basin in support of an existing water cleanup plan.
Water Right Adjudication Options
In many watersheds, uncertainty exists regarding the validity and extent of both surface and groundwater rights and claims. Adjudicating water rights is a judicial process that resolves conflict, sets the stage for effective planning and management of water resources, and increases economic and environmental certainty for water users and the state. One-time funding and staff are provided to assess and explore opportunities to resolve water rights uncertainties and disputes through adjudications in selected basins where tribal senior water rights, unquantified claims, and similar uncertainties about the seniority, quantity, and validity of water rights pose an impediment to comprehensive water resource management.
Support Voluntary Cleanups
Washington's toxics prevention and cleanup law, the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA), allows owners of contaminated properties to perform cleanups and achieve regulatory closure either independently or under Ecology's supervision. Through the Voluntary Cleanup Program (VCP), Ecology provides technical assistance and opinions on the sufficiency of independent cleanups to owners of contaminated properties. Over the last several years, funding has not kept pace with the demand for VCP services, thereby delaying or discouraging many voluntary cleanups. Ongoing funding is provided for five site managers to provide technical assistance and regulatory closure to people who voluntarily clean up contaminated properties. One-time funding and FTE staff are also provided for costs associated with agency request legislation to develop the process for expediting reviews of real estate development cleanups. This funding will encourage cleanups and facilitate redevelopment of contaminated properties in Washington, thereby improving public health and spurring economic development.
Litter Control and Waste Reduction
The litter tax was created in 1971 to prevent and pick up litter, and develop waste reduction and recycling programs in Washington state. Revenue from the tax is deposited in the Waste Reduction Recycling and Litter Control Account (WRRLCA). Since the 2005-07 biennium, diversions from WRRLCA to the General Fund and the State Parks budget have resulted in Ecology budget and staff reductions, and cuts to programs supporting waste reduction and litter control. WRRLCA funding is restored permanently to address litter prevention and recycling programs previously cut, and to begin addressing the recycling crisis brought on by new China-imposed restrictions on the import of recyclable materials. Additionally, plastic pollution is at an all-time high, especially in the marine environment. Activities funded from this increase include litter pickup by Ecology youth crews, local governments and other state agencies, and litter prevention public education campaigns.
Shift MTCA-Funded Work Back to GF-S
To address significant budget deficits during the Great Recession, a series of enacted operating budgets shifted Ecology operating activities from General Fund-State (GF-S) funding to Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) account funding. From the 2011-13 biennium through the 2017-19 biennium, $64.2 million in Ecology operating activities have shifted to MTCA funding. This item permanently shifts $20 million of MTCA-funded activities back to General Fund-State funding to address stakeholder and taxpayer concerns, restore overall capacity for agency activities in support of environmental and public health work, and allow MTCA funds to be used for priority areas identified in statute for toxics management, prevention, and cleanup projects statewide.
Recycling Crisis Response
Recycling in Washington is approaching a crisis due to new restrictions from the Chinese government limiting the state's largest export market for recyclable materials, with some recyclable paper and plastics now being thrown away. Contingent on passage of agency request legislation to address the recycling crisis, a combination of one-time and ongoing funding and FTE staff are provided for establishment of a recycling development center to research and develop new markets for recyclable materials. A portion of the funding will be passed through to the Department of Commerce to encourage recycling businesses to locate in Washington state. Ecology will also develop and implement a statewide contamination reduction and outreach plan to identify and address the most problematic contaminants in the recycling stream.
HFC Emissions Reduction
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are potent greenhouse gases commonly used in refrigeration, air-conditioning and other applications. Contingent on passage of proposed legislation to restrict HFCs and identify suitable substitutes, a combination of one-time and ongoing funding is provided to adopt rules governing a new HFC regulatory program, carry out related monitoring and compliance work, and contribute to a legislative report.
Orca - Tug Escort Rule
Contingent on passage of a legislative proposal to require tug escorts for oil tank vessels over 5,000 dead weight tons but less than 40,000 dead weight tons on Puget Sound and in the San Juan Islands, one-time funding and FTE staff are provided for the Department of Ecology to work with the Board of Pilotage Commissioners as it engages in rulemaking to carry out the requirements of this bill.
Orca - Recovery Coordinator
Ongoing funding and staff are provided for a Southern Resident Killer Whale (SRKW) coordinator for the Department of Ecology. This position will serve as the agency's central point of contact for reporting to the Governor, Legislature, and SRKW Task Force, and will ensure alignment of Ecology work with SRKW recovery priorities.
Orca - Water Quality Enforcement
Enforcement of existing water quality laws is key to recovering the prey that Southern Resident orcas rely on, as well as to reducing contaminant loading to the waters they inhabit. Ongoing funding and staff are provided for three additional water quality inspectors in Puget Sound who will focus on point source pollution, with an initial emphasis on industrial stormwater. These inspectors will provide technical assistance regarding best management practices to mitigate or prevent pollutant discharges and where needed, compliance assistance and enforcement to improve water quality.
Orca - PS Instream Flow Enforcement
Chinook salmon, the preferred food of Southern Resident orcas, rely on cool water and adequate streamflows for survival. Competition for available water in the Puget Sound region has increased with population growth, development pressure and agricultural use. Ongoing funding and staff are provided for eight additional water masters in Puget Sound to provide technical assistance, voluntary compliance and formal enforcement actions to manage water resources and ensure compliance with state water law.
Orca - Shoreline Armor Assistance
Forage fish in Puget Sound inhabit nearshore habitat that relies on functional shorelines that naturally replenish beach material. Shoreline armor structures, such as bulkheads, inhibit the natural beach replenishment process and are not always necessary to protect waterfront property. Ongoing funding and FTE staff are provided to increase coordination in reviewing shoreline armoring proposals to better protect forage fish. Ecology will devote one FTE to collaborate with the Department of Fish and Wildlife in reviewing compliance with armoring priorities identified by the Puget Sound Partnership. Ecology will also provide one FTE for specialized geotechnical review of shoreline armoring proposals, and conducting training for geotechnical consultants and local governments to ensure adequate demonstration of need when shoreline armoring projects are approved. This will result in more fish-friendly shoreline development and contribute to the health of forage fish.
Orca - Toxics and Juvenile Chinook
The Department of Fish and Wildlife recently found that about 30 percent of sampled juvenile Chinook salmon contained levels of contaminants high enough to induce sub-lethal effects, potentially affecting marine survival. Ongoing funding and staff are provided for sampling designed to identify the sources of toxics currently impacting juvenile Chinook in Puget Sound. Initial focus will be on such toxics as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and per- and polyfuouralkyl substances (PFAS) in water, sediment and resident biota. Data from this effort will help inform source control and actions needed to improve juvenile Chinook survival.
Low Carbon Fuels
Contingent on passage of a legislative proposal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the production of transportation fuels, a combination of one-time and ongoing funding and staff are provided for rulemaking, tracking and monitoring compliance with a low-carbon fuel standard, and development of a registration system for affected fuel producers and importers.
Orca - Pharmaceuticals & Wastewater
Pharmaceuticals released to marine waters are suspected of producing adverse effects on juvenile Chinook salmon, the favored food of Southern Resident orcas. Ongoing funding and staff are provided for the agency to convene a stakeholder workgroup to identify actions to decrease loading of priority pharmaceuticals into Puget Sound; contract for technical experts to provide literature review, analysis and best practices for addressing pharmaceutical discharges; and carry out laboratory testing and analysis. This work will lead to development of a plan for pharmaceutical discharge reduction by the end of fiscal year 2024 that identifies priorities, source control and wastewater treatment methods.
Zero-Emission Vehicle Legislation
Pursuant to enactment of Governor request legislation related to zero-emission vehicles, ongoing funding and staff are provided for the agency to conduct rulemaking to incorporate new medium-duty vehicles into the state's Clean Car Program and adopt the provisions of California's Zero-Emission Vehicle Program. Funding will also be used for program implementation, including coordinating with other states to track distribution of eligible vehicles, coordinating with the Department of Licensing to maintain necessary licensing systems, and maintaining web-available lists of eligible vehicles.
Orca - Dissolved Gas Rulemaking
To enable a higher volume of water spilled over Columbia River and Snake River dams, a combination of one-time and ongoing funding is provided for the agency to conduct rulemaking over three years to increase total dissolved gas allowance standards from 115 percent up to 125 percent. Increased spill levels will benefit Chinook salmon and other salmonids.
Balance to Available Revenue
Funding is reduced ongoing in the Underground Storage Tank Account and Coastal Protection Account to align expenditures with available revenue. This will result in a reduced level of work in the Underground Storage Tank Program, as well as a lower level of grant funding for restoration of resources impacted by oil spills.
State Public Employee Benefits Rate
Health insurance funding is provided for state employees who are not represented by a union, who are covered by a bargaining agreement that is not subject to financial feasibility determination, or who are not part of the coalition of unions for health benefits. The insurance funding rate is $977 per employee per month for fiscal year 2020 and $978 per employee per month for fiscal year 2021.
WFSE General Government
Funding is provided for a collective bargaining agreement with the Washington Federation of State Employees - General Government. The agreement includes a general wage increase of 3 percent, effective July 1, 2019; a general wage increase of 3 percent, effective July 1, 2020; premium, shift, and other special pay changes, and increases in targeted job classifications. Employee insurance included in the agreement is displayed in a separate item.
State Rep Employee Benefits Rate
This provides health insurance funding as part of the master agreements for employees who bargain for health benefits as part of a coalition of unions. The insurance funding rate is $977 per employee per month for fiscal year 2020 and $978 per employee per month for fiscal year 2021.
Non-Rep General Wage Increase
Funding is provided for wage increases for state employees who are not represented by a union or who are covered by a bargaining agreement that is not subject to financial feasibility determination. It is sufficient for a general wage increase of 3 percent, effective July 1, 2019, and a general wage increase of 3 percent, effective July 1, 2020. This item includes both general government and higher education workers.
Non-Rep Premium Pay
Funding is provided for increases in premium pay for state employees who are not represented by a union or who are covered by a bargaining agreement that is not subject to financial feasibility determination. Funding is sufficient to support changes in shift differential, call back and standby pay, as well as a 5 percent increase for employees working in King County.
Non-Rep Targeted Pay Increases
Funding is provided for classified state employees who are not represented by a union for pay increases in specific job classes in alignment with other employees.
PERS & TRS Plan 1 Benefit Increase
For eligible Public Employees' and Teachers' Retirement Systems Plan 1 members, this item provides a one-time, ongoing increase of 3 percent, up to a maximum of $62.50 per month.
Non-Rep Salary Schedule Revision
This funds a revised salary schedule for non-represented employees in information technology jobs, in alignment with other state employees.
Orca Transit Pass Funding Transfer
This moves funding for employee transit passes from agencies to WSDOT, which administers the program. The transfer includes both funding added in 2019-21 for expanded access, as well as funding that was provided in the 2017-19 budget.
Health Coalition FSA Fund Transfer
This moves funding for negotiated medical flexible spending arrangements (FSA) from individual agency budgets. It will be provided to the Health Care Authority, which will administer the benefit.
Electric Vehicle Infrastructure
Agency budgets are adjusted to reflect each agency's estimated portion of increased fee for service charges from the Department of Enterprise Services to expand electric vehicle infrastructure for the state Motor Pool fleet.
Agency budgets are adjusted to reflect each agency's allocated share of charges for the state archives and state records center.
Agency budgets are adjusted to reflect each agency's allocated share of charges for state government audits.
Agency budgets are adjusted to reflect each agency's anticipated share of legal service charges.
CTS Central Services
Agency budgets are adjusted to reflect each agency's allocated share of charges from the Consolidated Technology Services Agency (WaTech) for the Office of the Chief Information Officer, Office of Cyber Security, state network, security gateways, and geospatial imaging services.
DES Central Services
Agency budgets are adjusted to reflect each agency's allocated share of charges from the Department of Enterprise Services (DES) for campus rent, utilities, parking, and contracts; a capital project surcharge; financing cost recovery; public and historic facilities; real estate services; risk management services; personnel service rates; the Perry Street child care center; and the department's enterprise applications.
OFM Central Services
Agency budgets are adjusted to reflect each agency's allocated share of charges from the Office of Financial Management (OFM) for the One Washington project and OFM enterprise systems.